America’s classrooms are becoming increasingly diverse. Each child’s culture has a significant influence in determining the children’s identity and frame of reference. It is essential to provide an environment in which all cultures can succeed. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) defines culture as “… the customary beliefs and patterns of behavior, both explicit and implicit, that are influenced by the society- or by a social, religious, or ethnic group within the society-in its members.
Studies have shown that Hispanic families are not as familiar with APE services as Caucasian families. Parental expectations among Hispanic parents were similar to Caucasian parents, but the preferences for modes of communication and information are different. Many culturally diverse families traditionally defer to educators and allow them to make decisions that many believe should be made through a collaboration process. This is likely due to there lack of confidence in language. Trained translators are recommended.
An article analyzing culture and its influence on children with severe and multiple disabilities. The research shows that familiar food, music, and customs are important for them as they provide a link between home and school. Unfortunately, many children with multiple or severe physical disabilities, and with communication deficits, may not be able to effectively convey their prior cultural experiences and knowledge. All students regardless of disabilitiy should be taught within the context of their own cultural heritage, and their families should be an integral part of the IEP team. This will cause these students to be dependent upon teacher and their families to be cultural mediators. The challenge then is to find common ground to maximize the educational potential.
Having diverse heritages is a seen as a positive attribute to classroom. Three things to consider when having multiple cultures in a classroom.
1. Teachers must know and understand how culture impacts their own lives before they can become responsive to children and families from diverse backgrounds.
2. Teachers begin to match children’s learning style
with teaching style.
3. Teachers recognize that language plays a major
role in the instructional process. Teachers are sensitive to the effect of language
differences on children’s responsiveness to teaching and learning.
Physical Activity: A recent survey suggests that the USA male and female participants take part in sports and physical activities mainly for competition and improving skills.
Having a safe class environment for all different religions, cultures, and sexual beliefs need to be respected and safe in all aspects. No two people are alike. The world is a giant melting pot of differences and people need to be respected regardless of your own beliefs. All students are still children and all students need allies.
Culture is a huge factor in many people’s lives. Incorporating the family’s cultural beliefs are important for a cohesive team to have success for the child. Some laws in other countries are not the same as in the United States. If you have a Hispanic family that does not know the teacher for their student, they may be apprehensive to give information. Calling them or sending them a letter describing what APE is about and what the services are will be beneficial for the family in the long run, even if the language barrier is there.
Students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing have the right and deserve to learn the same curriculum as their hearing peers. Deaf culture is a very strong group of people. Learning American Sign Language as a teacher or using other visual aids will help not only the student who is deaf, but probably other students as well. Talking about differences in people, like doing the Disability Awareness Week, could not only help you as the teacher learns, but letting other students learn that it’s not a scary thing. Using peer tutors for students of any ability level is also beneficial. They then have the opportunity to work with a partner and can give feedback to each other. With a student who is deaf, they may need more time with their partner; they can have the use of the interpreter and use written or visual cues.
Samoan families have been raised through generations and are very strong in culture. Teachers need to be aware of their upbringings. A lot of teachers want students to look at them if they are talking to each other. When a Pasifika (PacificIsland peoples in New Zealand) child is being reprimanded, they show their respect to their elders by bowing their heads. Having a child brought up this way, then having a teacher to look at them, might be confusing for that child. Pacific Islanders take great pride in their culture and language. Incorporating others cultures into your class can help and also asking parents to collaborate with ideas from their culture for ideas.
Respecting the beliefs and knowing the differences between fact and fiction is crucial for educators. Modifying clothes for certain cultures would be ideal for some cultures. Wearing shorts under dress or finding a place for students that pray 5 times a day, finding a safe, quiet place for them to do that is important. One of the Pillars of Islam is Ramadan where adults (13 years old) fast from sun up to sun down. They cannot eat or drink during this time. Making students run on a hot day where they cannot drink water could put them in danger as well as the teacher themselves.
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students are bullied, as are other students, but there are many that end up committing suicide because of the bullying. For many students in the LGBT community, they still feel they are not accepted by either friends or family around them. At the beginning of the year in class, you can state what is appropriate and not appropriate language to use that are offending to people of the LGBT community and people in general. This goes for religions and slang that are derogatory to people in life.
-Communicating with Hispanic Parents of Children with and without Disabilities
Exploring teaching practices in physical education with culturally diverse classes: a cross-cultural study Symeon Dagkas*University of Birmingham European Journal of Teacher Education Vol. 30, No. 4, November 2007, pp. 431–443
Inclusion in Physical Education: Changing the Culture APRIL TRIPP TERRY L. RIZZO LINDA WEBBERT. JOPERD • Volume 78 No. 2 • February 2007
CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE INSTRUCTION FOR STUDENTS WITH MULTIPLE OR SEVERE PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS
BLANCHEJACKSONGLIMPSTennesseeStateUniversity THERON FORD
Parental Acceptance-Rejection:Theory, Methods, Cross-Cultural Evidence, and ImplicationsRONALD P. ROHNER ABDUL KHALEQUEDAVID E. COURNOYER
The Consultation Process: Adapted
Physical Education Specialists’ Perceptions
Lytle, Doug Collier
is based on how special education teachers and general education teachers can
work together and have a child with disabilities be included in a general
physical education class. “Consultation
is most frequently operationalized as a triadic model. Friend and Cook (2000)
define consultation as “ . . . a voluntary process in which one professional
assists another to address a problem concerning a third party” (p. 22).”Since more students are being included in
general education classes, the APE specialist are being used more frequently by
general education teacher and students.A few things could affect how successful the consultations go,
personalities of the people involved and commitment.The consultation process that the APE
teachers used the consultation method more once students were getting older
into middle and high school as students like to be with their peers and don’t
want to be pulled out into small groups. Having a willing GE teacher that will
take ideas after a consultation with an APE teacher and then apply the ideas
can help make a stronger program and successful student.Communication goes both directions, so emails
and phone calls can also help increase the success of students in a GE class
when the APE teacher is not around. Consultation is a great way for the GE and APE
specialist to work together.
stated that more GE teachers are having students with disabilities in their
classes and may not have the information or ideas of how to include them in the
class.APE teachers are then losing
their direct contact to the GE teacher and are now having to find time to
consult with the teachers to go over training with the GE teacher since they
now have more direct contact with the student.Consultation for the APE teacher is defined as “problem solving process
in which one professional help other experts, parent or community members work
more successfully with a third party.” The APE teacher works with the GE teacher who
then works with the student. Lack of time and money are among the top problems
when coming to consulting with others.APE teachers have students at different schools and GE teachers can have
100-200 other students.It could be hard
to find time to meet and come up with plans for the students.Finding time is crucial for the success of the
student.Co-teaching with a GE teacher
could help until the teacher is comfortable implementing the plan could help,
but then there is the time constraint, too. Consulting is becoming more common
for the APE teacher and there is a lot that can still be learned for it and
Adapted Physical Educators: The
Multiple Roles of Consultants
Lytle and Gayle E. Hutchinson
specialist role is changing from direct services to indirect services more and
more due to the inclusion into general physical education classes.APE teachers consult with multiple people,
not just the GE teacher.They consult
with speech pathologists, special educators, and physical educators.The APE teacher may be able to share
knowledge about a disability, how to accommodate the student with the
disability and instructional strategies.People involved in the IEP process are constantly consulting with each
other, through face to face contact or through technology.There were a few different roles that the APE
teacher was placed, advocacy, trainer/educator and fact finder.The participants all liked working with
children but with the role changing, they are working more with adults.The article also suggests that for APE
programs, more consultation classes could help since it is one the main aspects
Collaboration Article Reviews
Childhood Educ J (2009) 36:483–489
Collaborative Teaching of Motor
Skills for Preschoolers with Developmental Delays
Murata Carol A. Tan
was based on the collaboration between a team of people.This included occupational therapists,
physical therapists, adapted physical educators and preschool teachers. Usually
the classroom teacher is responsible for the motor domain but might not have
the full capability of teaching it to students with developmental delays. These could be “motor, psycho-socio, speech language,
emotional, and cognitive delays.” Keeping
common goals by all of the above professionals, they have to collaborate to
make sure supports for behavioral and teaching strategies to be able to
incorporate the students to be successful and have fun.Spatial awareness, bilateral integration,
sequencing skills and imitation skills should be designedto address readiness skills.The final findings to this article was that
if they used appropriate skills and started from the basics and then built on
each skill, the child will more than likely be successful.
Educational and Psychological Consultation, 10(2), 173-184
Efficient and Effective Formats for
educational setting, collaborative consultation can look different.The main point this article wants you to know
is that “all types of collaborative consultation place a strong emphasis on
communication skills.” There are a few
factors that hinder this process.Time
is a big factor for educators.They are
already busy doing things that they need to do, then finding time for the
special education teachers to meet with a general education teacher sometimes
is hard.When I need to talk to a
special education teacher, or any teacher for that matter, it’s either before
or after school or at lunch.We don’t
have a carved out time for us to meet.Since special education teachers typically have small class sizes
compared to large general education classes, this article is helpful for gen ed
teachers that need to collaborate with a special ed teacher about a student.
This article also has two different formats which one follow to decrease the
time of the meeting and to be able to get right to the point.One version is called ACT.First you’d analyze the concern for that
student.Then choose an intervention
that could work in your class. And the third is to implement it in your class
and evaluate the progress.The scenario
in the article was helpful and could be a good tool to try while collaborating
with a fellow teacher.
the Field: Skill Sets Needed for Effective Collaboration and Co-teaching
Since NCLB and
IDEA, more collaboration in needed to make successful teachers and
schools.This article had three
different groups, including pre-service training, coursework and experiences
received and what data showed what teachers thought as helpful.What teachers thought of as important are not
always what is being taught in teacher preparation programs.Throughout the study teachers agreed that
certain experiences, skills, and knowledge are necessary for collaboration and
co-teaching as well as interpersonal skills and communication.Communication was the most common theme
amongst the teachers and the most important skill to becoming effective with
co-teaching.Almost half of what the pre
service training that teachers thought were important, were not held up as
taught.Collaboration with teachers,
staff and administration are key in building successful teachers.
Inclusion Article Reviews
Block , Aija Klavina & Wayne Flint (2007): Including Students with Severe, Multiple
Disabilities in General Physical
of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78:3, 29-32
article was about including students with disabilities into general physical
education classes. The main point was trying to get students with severe,
multiple disabilities into general education classes as long as they were
successful and safe.Students are
wanted to start out in the GPE class, and if they are not safe or successful,
then other options need to be looked at to make that student successful.“These strategies revolve around three major
themes: (1) identifying and selecting appropriate goals and objectives for the
student with disabilities and then finding ways to help the student achieve
these goals and objectives while in GPE, (2) making the GPE setting safe for
the student with SMD, and (3) facilitating social interaction between students
with and without SMD.”I had a student
with mild Cerebral Palsy and he was included in my class.With the help of the IEP, the APE teacher and
myself, we were able to come up with modified equipment or rules so he could
participate with the class to the best of his ability.He was very shy around other classmates but
the students included him during games, drills and helped encourage him with
Block & Peggy V. Johnson (2011): The
Adapted Dance Process, Journal of Physical Education,
talks about dance and how it can be adapted by people of any age, gender and
ability level. Some students with disabilities might not be in general
education classes.They are with the
same classmates all day, so physical education may be the only time they are
receiving socialization with other students.A person with a disability may have a wheelchair or a prosthetic
limb.All this needs to be taken into
consideration by the teacher and the student and perhaps the student’s partner,
since this equipment is a part of their body for the most part.There is a box in the article that is very
well laid out and has information about students with balance and coordination
challenges, physical and intellectual disabilities, hearing and visual
impairments and emotionally disturbed and Autism and how to incorporate
them.The California State Standards have a section
where dance is a required unit.I teach
folk, multicultural and square dancing at my school.It is one of my favorite units to teach.I let them know they will not get marked down
if they do the wrong steps or if they forget a step, just pick it up when they
remember.Dance is a great was to use
creativity and social skills as a group to reach a fantastic outcome, no matter
the ability level.
Schultz , Lauren J. Lieberman , M. Kathleen Ellis & Linda C. Hilgenbrinck
(2013): Ensuring the Success of Deaf
Students in Inclusive Physical Education, Journal of Physical Education,
Recreation & Dance, 84:5, 51-56
was about students who are deaf being included in general physical education
and general classes, as well.They say 43% of students who are deaf are in
general education classes.Being deaf
should not be a limiting factor for them not to be involved in physical
education.American Sign Language is the
main source of interacting, but handouts, demonstrations, written notes or any
other type of visual aids could be beneficial to people who are either deaf or
hearing.There are many ways that
children of different ability levels learn.Finding the best communication strategy for the teacher and the student
is the best way to be successful in class.I took two American Sign Language classes this year and I had one of my
6th grade classes use ASL counting when we did stretching.I plan on doing more signs with my classes in
the future.The students really seemed
to enjoy learning something other than PE in class and we used it the counting
when we were inside so they weren’t screaming numbers while we stretched.
"The Ocean Healing Group is a non-profit 501c3 foundation, dedicated to providing once in a lifetime, adaptive sports adventure to wheelchair bound youngsters and their parents. It's our collective mission to expose kids to a wide variety of sports and activities, things they would never have the opportunity to experience otherwise... including but not limited to surfing, snorkeling, zip-line tours, fishing, quid riding, nature tours, and horseback riding."
Helping these kids carve the ″Dis″ out of their disability.